Sunday, June 17, 2012

Glossary of local Himalayan terms

The topography of Himalayas presents them as unique natural monuments. Himalayas have been regarded to be the toughest topography on this planet; still these heavenly mountains have nurtured and preserved, a rich, warm and lively culture. Being isolated from the rest of world, these Himalayan wonderlands still preserves local dialects. 

Difficult to communicate sometimes, however communication barrier can be surmounted by usage of the local terms which will bridge the gap of the modern world with them.

Aari:   Small saw which is operated by single person


Anar/Daru:   Pomegranate (a tropical fruit with many seeds), Punica granatum


Angoori:   Grape vine, Vitis spp.


Angora:  Type of goat


Aonla:  Emblica Officinalis


Arbi:  Colocasia species


Barter system:  A system in which purchase and sale of animals, farm produce and goods is based on exchange basis


Bathu:  A leafy vegetable, Chenopodium album


Belcha:  Spade


Ber:  Zizypus mauritiana (an important fruit tree)


Berka:  Threshing pole


Beul:  Grewia optiva


Bhains:  Salix tetrasperma


Bhang:  Cannabis sativa, a multipurpose narcotic plant


Bharal:  Animal found in cold desert of Himachal Pradesh


Bhera:  Indigenous medicinal plant, Terminalia chebula


Bileha:  Pick axe


Bori:  Sack (Bag)


Buckwheat:  Fagopyrum species  whose grains are used as a food


Chakkala-Belan:  Rolling pin and board used for making chapatis


Chakki:  Hand mill


Changpass:  Changra goats (type of goats) owner


Changthang:  Name of place in Ladakh bordering with Tibet


Cheenee:  A millet crop, Panicum miliaceum


Chhang/Ghanti:  Alcoholic drink made from rice, Avena saliva starch


Chhini:  Chisel


Chikri Khilna:  A kind of spade to dig


Chilgoza Seeds:  of Pinus gerardiana, which considered as valuable dry fruit


Chir pine:  Pinus roxburghii


Chola:   A woollen dress


Chukor:  Partridge found in cold deserts of Himachal Pradesh


Chulai:  Leafy vegetable (Amaranthus viridis)


Chuli:  Prunus armenica, wild apricot


Chullah:  A fire place for cooking


Chum:  Cross breed of yak and cow used for milk


Chutsa:  Chisel


Daach:  Big sickle to cut wood


Dachi:  Sickle to cut grass


Deodar:  Cedrus deodara, timber yielding species of Himalayan forests


Desi:  Indigenous/local


Dhan:  Sheep and goats wealth /paddy


Dhar:  High mountains


Dora:  Rope tied at the waist by both men and women


Gaddis:  Semi-nomadic tribal of Kangra and Chamba districts of HP


Gainti:  Pick axe


Galgal:  A fruit of citrus (Citrus pseudolimon) family


Gandasa:  Sharp blade fitted to wooden handle


Ghasni:  Grass land


Ghee:  Fats made from vegetable and animal's milk


Ghoom:  Hammer


Gur/shakkar:  Crude sugar


Hal:  Wooden plough


Havan:  A religious ceremony


Heeng:  Asafoetida spp. (dried exudate)


Hukka:  Device for smoking tobacco


Jalga:  A perennial wild spice plant, Phytolaca acinosa


Jeth:  Summer month


Jhabbal:  Jumper/Crowbar


Jonks:  Leechs


Kachnar:  Bahaunia variegate


Kail:  Pinus wallichiana (Blue pine)


Kaimal:  Mallotus philipinensis


Klam/Dambu:  Grafting operation used in horticultural crops


Kalijiri:  Centratherum antheminticum


Kanda:  Highest point where cultivable lands are found above the village


Kangoo:  Comb for combing wood


Karnu:  A local tree


Karolari:  Saw


Kasi:  Hoe


Kath:  Pyrus pashia


Katha:  Acacia catechu, Commercial product of khair tree


Kera:  Large sieve


Khads:  Water streams


Khair:  Acacia catechu


Khaliyan:  Courtyard or a small ground used for threshing their field crops


Kharif:  Crop season from May-June to Oct.- Nov., main crops of this season are maize, paddy, pulses etc.


Khasipine:  Pinus kesia


Kassi:  Hoe


Khati: Dugout structure to store rain water


Khatti:  Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) storage pits


Khawaja:  Diety


Khejri:  A multipurpose nitrogen fixing tree (Prosopis cineraria)


Khet:  Fields


Khirak:  Celtis australis


Khurpa/Khurpi:  Hand hoe


Kikar:  Acacia nilotica


Kilni Khilna: A small equipment used for digging 


Kilta:  A wooden container


Kodo:  A millet crop, Paspalum serobiculatum


Kongni:  Millet, Setaria italic


Kudal/Kudali:  Hoe


Kuhal/Kuhl:  Small water channel used for irrigation purposes


Kuldebta:  Village deity


Kunish:  Alnus spp.


Kuth:  Saussurea lappa, a commercial cash crop


Lota:  Container generally used for drinking water and watering plants


Mahotar/dhingri/guchhi:  Edible fungus


Maina:  Name of bird


Mash:  Leguminous crop used as pulse (Vigna radiata)


Masur: Leguminous crop used as pulse (Lense esculanta)


Meryana:  Ulmus leviegata


Methi:  Trigonella foenum graecum, Fenugreek (important spice)


Pudina:  Mint (Mentha spp.)


Moi:  Leveller


Moong:  Leguminous crop used as pulse (Vigna mungo)


Moori:  Concentrated alcoholic drink


Nallah/Nalla/Nallaha:  A mini water stream


Navratras:  A set of auspicious nine days in Hindu religion


Neem:  Azadirachta indica


Nihani:  Chisel


Papiha:  Name of bird / Great Barbet


Pashimna goat:  A special type of goat which produced very soft wool


Pattu:  A woollen blanket


Phafra/Phaphra:  Buckwheat (Phagopyrum spp.)


Phanani:  A bow shaped device used for combing wool


Phawara:  Spade


Rabi crop:  Crops like wheat, mustard etc. grown during the months of Oct.-Nov. to April-May


Rajmash:  A pulse crop (Phaseolus vulgaris)


Safeda:  Eucalyptus spp.


Sarkanda grass: A wild long grass used for thatching houses (Saccharum spontaneous)


Sarson:  Mustard (Brassica compastris)


Soolini Mela:  Local fair of Soolini deity


Sua:  Wooden pin


Taklu:  A special spindle device


Tambaku:  Tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum)


Tatihari:  Name of bird


Thali:   Plate


Titar:   Partridge


Tokra:   A big wooden container


Tokru:   A small wooden container


Toon:   Toona ciliate


Toot:  Moms alba


Tor:   A multiple wild plant, Bauhinia vahilii


Urd:  Leguminous crop, Vigna radiata


Zira:  Cumin (important spice)